Miraflores is a district in Lima - Peru. This district is known for its shopping areas, gardens, flower-filled parks and beaches, it is one of the upscale districts that make up the city of Lima.
Originally founded as San Miguel de Miraflores, it was established officially as a district on January 2, 1857. As a result of the Battle of Miraflores fought during the War of the Pacific, Miraflores got the designation of Ciudad Heroica ("Heroic City"). The current mayor is Manuel Masias. The district's postal code is 18.
The district has a total land area of 9.62 km². Its administrative center is located 79 meters above sea level.
North: San Isidro and Surquillo
East: Surquillo and Santiago de Surco
South: Barranco and Santiago de Surco
West: Pacific Ocean
The district is also a cultural center, with theaters, cinemas and art galleries. It also has a pre-Inca mud-brick temple called the Huaca Pucllana, one of a number of archaeological sites found in Lima.
In terms of education, the Miraflores district lodges some of the most prestigious high schools in Peru, such as Markham College, and San Silvestre School (British schools), Deutsche Schule Alexander von Humboldt Lima (German school), Pestalozzi (Swiss school) and Carmelitas School. It also lodges the University of Piura.
The district is full of cafés, pubs, restaurants and shops, which is a draw for a large part of the Lima population on Sundays. Parque Kennedy, Miraflores' central plaza, regularly has flea markets and art exhibitions. Larcomar, a shopping mall overlooking the Pacific coast, is located in Miraflores, and is very popular among tourists, young people, and the middle and upper classes. They have restaurants, stores, a food court, ice cream shops, arcades, bowling alleys, nightclubs, bars, and the most modern cinema in all of Lima.
Miraflores has always been a major hub for tourists in Lima. There are a number of hotels in the area, including a couple of international hotel brands (Hilton and Ritz Carlton) which have projects planned for construction in 2009. Furthermore, there are several shops selling souvenirs and tourist products.
The Costa Verde ("green coast") area has several beaches, which draw surfers and beachgoers alike in summertime. However, these rocky beaches are not as popular with bathers as the large, sandy beaches in the districts south of Lima, such as Santa María del Mar, Punta Hermosa and Punta Negra. Larcomar Shopping Center is located in this area.
This town district is a delight for visitors who come to Lima, the upscale neighborhood of Miraflores offers a nice compliment for those seeking urban Peru at its finest. Known for its shops, gardens and beaches, Miraflores Peru is a prime hub for Lima tourists, with the Miraflores hotels offering up some of the city’s most luxurious accommodations. Miraflores Lima is a busy neighborhood, where crossing the street can sometimes be a pretty hectic adventure, but the views of the Pacific Ocean from its cliffs are sure to relax your inner soul a bit. Miraflores basically translates to, “look at the flowers”, and its flower-filled parks provide a great respite when touring about town. As most international flights to Peru arrive at the capital city of Lima, the tourist hotels in Miraflores make for an excellent base if you are seeking lodging. You can get from the Lima airport to Miraflores by way of private bus, but the numerous taxis prove to be sufficient for most visitors.
Miraflores and the adjoining neighborhood of San Isidro are Lima’s most exclusive neighborhoods. South of central Lima and nearer to the coast, both Miraflores and San Insidro are where the city’s commercial center is fixed, and besides offering some of the best Lima hotels, they are prime residential districts for Lima natives with more of a dispensable income. Miraflores is as much a cultural and entertainment center as much as it is a business and tourist hub. Some of the best Lima high schools are found in Miraflores Lima, and its galleries, theaters and movie-houses offer an array of diversions. When you add these attractions to the list of Miraflores Peru shops, cafes, restaurants and pubs, you can soon understand why many consider it the place to be in Lima. Especially on Sundays, Lima natives enjoy dropping in on Miraflores, if not for the Larcomar shopping mall, then perhaps for the flea markets and art shows found at the Parque Kennedy central plaza. If you are engaging in Miraflores travel and are looking for an exciting part of town to hang out at, you might head to the “Calle de las Pizzas”, In case you are wondering, Calle de las Pizzas translates to “Pizza Street”, where the city’s youth is particularly busy on the weekends.
The neatest place to relax for a bit and enjoy the Miraflores Lima Pacific Ocean views is the Parque del Amor, which means, “Park of Love”. The main lookout at Parque del Amor boasts not only amazing views, but also artistic walls and a statue depicting two lovers in a romantic embrace. It was partly, if not mainly, due to the words of poet Antonio Cilloniz, that Miraflores decided to erect this statue of lovers. Cilloniz had expressed his desire for South American monuments that praised lovers instead of battle heros, stating that, “In the cities, they do not build monuments to lovers”. His influential words are found below the statue. The cliffs of Miraflores are not only ideal for admiring the ocean, but also for those seeking out Miraflores adventure travel. While Miraflores adventure travel packages most often take you out of the city, you can feed your adventurous side by hangliding from nearby cliffs, or by surfing on its beaches. Paragliders most often launch from the coastal ridge along the Costa Verde, or Green Coast, for a chance to view the sea to one side and the capital city of Lima to the other.
Miraflores , as most visitors know it, involves arriving at the Lima airport, transferring to a Miraflores hotel, embarking to outside destinations such as Cusco, Machu Picchu and Lake Titicaca, and then returning to Lima. Miraflores adventure travel trips can generally be tailored to your needs, depending on the agency you choose to book with, and the number of days and stops depends basically on how much time you have. One of the great things about a Peru vacation is the number of helpful travel agents who will help you plan your vacation, from how to get there to where to stay. If you are heading to Peru without having arranged something like a Miraflores adventure travel package, you can rest assured that finding guides and helpful agents shouldn’t be too hard a task. In fact, they often will find you first.
The only pre-Inca ruin remaining in Miraflores, Huaca Pucllana (formerly Hispanicized as Juliana) can still be seen. The Spanish town of Miraflores was established in the 16th century. However it was merged into the Lima Metropolitan Area as the city expanded during the early 20th century. During the War of the Pacific(1879-1885), the district was the scene of the Battle of Miraflores. Two thousand people died as a result and the district was sacked and burned by Chilean invaders.
HISTORY OF MIRAFLORES
The Battle of Miraflores occurred on January 15, 1881 in the Miraflores District of Lima, Peru. It was an important battle during the War of the Pacific that was fought between Chile and the forces of Peru. The Chilean army led by Gen. Manuel Baquedano defeated the army commanded by Nicolás de Piérola guarding the second defensive line of the Peruvian capital city. Two days later, Lima, the capital city of Peru was occupied by Chilean troops. Gen. Baquedano's forces marched into Lima triumphant, while Peru's president and his officers fled into the interior, leaving the country without any government. Although the fall of Lima, the war continued between the occupation army and the troops of Andres Caceres for another three years. During the occupation of Lima, Peru's National Library was set on flames, while a number of other monuments were ransacked by Chilean forces and taken as war trophies.
During the battle, Peruvian naval officer Captain Juan Fanning became a national hero for leading a spectacular infantry charge of marines that nearly outflanked the enemy. Fanning's brigade caused some Chilean casualties until running out of ammunition, then continued to fight with knife and bayonet until Fanning was mortally wounded. 400 of Fanning's 524 men were killed during the charge.
After the Chilean victory at Chorrillos, a truce were declared between both sides meanwhile peace conversations took place. The Chilean objective was to obtain an unconditional capitulation and save the Chilean army another battle before entering in Lima. For this purpose, General Baquedano held conversations with Nicolás de Piérola, the dictator of Perú and the mediation of Spencer St John of England, Jorge Tezanos Pinto of El Salvador and M. de Vorges of France. Sadly, this conversations failed.
During the peace conversations, Pierola arranged his army in a second defensive line at Miraflores. The defenses of this line were arranged in a similar way to those at Chorrillos two days earlier. A 12 km. line extended from the beach at Miraflores until the Surco River, formed by 10 strongholds about 900m apart.
This line was divided in three sectors:
On the right flank, under the command of General Andrés Cáceres, Redoubt Nº 1 was defended by the 2nd Battalion commanded by the Provisional Colonel Lecca. Right next to this forces, the Guardia Chalaca Battalion, led by Carlos Arrieta, and the Guarnición de Marina Battalion commanded by Captain Juan Fanning. Right next to it, the 4th battalion was posted in the Redoubt Nº 2, under the order of the Provisional Colonel Ribeyro, this stronghold was by the railroad. The Redoubt Nº 3 was defended by 6th Battalion commanded by Provisional Col. de la Colina.
On the center of the line was the division commanded by Belisario Suárez.
On the left was located the division commanded by Justo Pastor Dávila. The 8th battalion was set on Redoubt Nº 5. The 10th battalion was at the Redoubt Nº 6. 12th Battalion on Redoubt Nº 7, 14th Battalion on the Camacho bridge, and on the right of this last unit, the 16th Battalion. In total, the Peruvian forces had 10.500 men between the regular army and the reserve.
The Army of Chile had a strength estimated about 12.000 men and was divided into three divisions and one reserve as it follows:
The 1st Division of Navy Capt. Patricio Lynch had two brigades, the 1st Brigade of Col Juan Martínez formed by the 2nd Line, Talca, Atacama, Colchagua infantry regiments. The 2nd Brigade of Col. José Dgo. Amunátegui had the 4th Line, Chacabuco, Coquimbo, Artillería de Marina infantry regiments and the Quillota and Melipilla infantry battalions.
The 2nd Division of Col. Emilio Sotomayor, with two brigades, the 1st Brigade of Col. José Fco. Gana, composed by the "Buin" 1st Line, Esmeralda and Chillán infantry regiments. The 2nd Brigade of Lt. Col. Orozimbo Barboza was formed by the Lautaro and Curicó infantry regiments, and the Victoria Infantry Battalion.
The 3rd Division of Col. Pedro Lagos structured in two brigades also, the 1st Brigade of Col. Martiniano Urriola, composed by the Aconcagua Inf. Regiment and the Naval Inf. Battalion. The 2nd Brigade of Col. Francisco Barceló formed by the Santiago and Concepción infantry regiments, plus the Valdivia, Bulnes and Caupolicán infantry battalions.
Because of a skirmish between a small groups of Chilean and Peruvian forces, in the night of January 14, Colonel Lagos ordered his Chief of Staff Jose Eustaquio Gorostiaga to send out a small force in order to scout the terrain at the south of Barranco. As a result of this maneuver, the III Division was placed on the southern edge of the Surco river. On the vanguard were deployed a company of the "Santiago" 5th Line Regiment and 40 soldiers of the Acongagua Battalion and some artillery pieces, adding up 150 Chilean troops at the north of Barranco. Lagos' division was stationed on the vanguard considering this unit didn't had as many losses as the other two divisions at Chorrillos.
At this time, in the Peruvian lines, Gen. Pedro Silva decided to make a formal review of his troops in order to rise their morale, which was very low due to the impact of the defeat at Chorrillos two days ago. This movement in the defensive lines made the Chilean officers became suspicious and strengthened their advanced troops (at 400 meters of the Peruvian lines at the northern side of the Surco river). The Naval Regiment and the entire 5th Line Regiment were disposed to the right and to the left of the railroad connecting Barranco and Miraflores. Now the Chilean vanguard counts 1,100 men.
At 10:00 hrs, Martinez' reserve was ordered to move in direction to Barranco, arriving at 11:00 to their destination.
At 10:45 hrs Gorosteaga, who was concerned about the vicinity of the Peruvian forces at the other side of the river, and informs this to Col. Lagos who orders to put the entire division in line.
After this, the I Division moved towards Barranco. Col. Martinez' brigade began to move at 13:00 hrs, but Col. Amunategui's brigade didn't advanced until 14:00 hrs. Meanwhile, Gen. Baquedano ordered the cavalry to forward to Barranco. Lagos's division continued evolving on the first line with its 2nd Brigade on the left flank. Its 1st Brigade was not in position, because the troops were unaware of the tense situation, so Col. Lagos urged to force the march and advance quickly to their positions alongside the 1st Brigade of the Artillery Regt. Nº1. All this movement took place in front of the Cáceres' Division on the front western side.
At 14:00 hrs, the battle started unexpectedly, and the troops on the Chilean right wing (about 3,380 troops at that time) were attacked by Cáceres' Corps (about 5,000 men). The Chilean battleships began to fire upon the Peruvian positions trying to ease the pressure over Lagos' forces, meanwhile Cáceres sent the Guardia Chalaca and Guarnición de Marina battalions against Col. Barcelo's brigade, and a fraction of Col. Suarez' Corps engaged Urriola's brigade, which wasn't in complete formation yet. The strength of the Peruvian attack forced the Chilean units to retreat. At this time, the Chilean I Division had not reached its position yet, thus the cavalry regiments and the artillery pieces withdraw from the front line.
By 15:00 hrs, the first troops of the I Division arrived to their positions on the right flank of Lagos' units. In the meantime, two reserve battalions had been sent to reinforce Lagos as well, along with two cavalry regiments. Caceres sent the Concepción, Libertad and Paucarpata battalions to heighten the attack over the Chilean troops, which were stopped and began to refold again.
Col. Lagos ordered the "Santiago" 5th Line Regiment to assail Caceres' forces in a pincer maneuver, while the rest of the brigade were to onset the Peruvians with a frontal charge. The "Santiago" performed the flanking attack, meanwhile three companies of the other units assaulted the trenches, which had to be reinforced with another five. The Chileans succeeded in their attempt and took the defenses in Redoubt Nº1, breaking the Peruvian flank in direction to Miraflores, as Caceres retreated to Redoubt Nº2.
With the entire I Division now reunited and Col. Barbosa's brigade reinforcing the Chilean left flank, the Peruvian offensive decreased. Barcelo's brigade, under the command of Lt. Col. Demofilo Fuenzalida (since Colonel Barcelo had been wounded), and backed up by soldiers of the 3rd Line Regiment, outflanked the position and onsetted the next four Peruvian redoubts on the I Sector (gunned with thirty cannons and ten machine guns) from behind and expelled its defenders, then advanced to Miraflores.
Although the Peruvian resistance in the right was fading, the situation in the center of the line was very different. These defenders held their positions enduring the Chilean attack, but began to gave with the arrival of another two Chilean regiments. When these redoubts were taken, the 8th Battalion in redoubt Nº 5 withdrew, collapsing the entire Peruvian front.
By 18:30, Fuenzalida's regiment arrived to the Miraflores train station, while the cavalry regiments converged on his position. With the battle already decided, Echeñique orders the remaining troops not to enter in combat, dissolving this forces and sending them home, avoiding the combat to reach the capital's streets. Nevertheless, the positions at San Bartolomé and San Cristóbal continued firing upon the Chilean troops a while longer. Sadly, Miraflores had the same luck than Chorrillos and was burned to the ground. By midnight, Rufino Torrico, Mayor of Lima surrenders the city to Gen. Baquedano. Lima had fallen after more than five hours of fierce combats and almost two years of war.
The casualties in both sides were enormous. The Chilean army lost between 2,200 and 2,600 men, among them Juan Martínez, Commandant of the Atacama Infantry Regiment. Lagos' III Division fought in the front line the entire battle, so had the biggest losses, 1,131 men were dead on wounded. The I Division lost 697 men, and the II Division 347 soldiers. The Chilean reserve suffered the loss of 346 men.
The Peruvian army had losses estimated in about 3,200 men (30.4% of their total force), but it's not been confirmed with official reports. After this victory, Lima surrendered and the Chilean army entered in the City of the Viceroys on January 17, 1881. Also, Nicolás de Piérola left the city in direction to the Andes, as many of his officers did. Among these officers was Col. Andres Caceres, who led the resistance in the mountains against the Chilean occupation army. Another four years of war were necessary until the decisive Chilean victory at Huamachuco, in 1883.